Nuevos “protectorados” de Europa

Por Ignacio Ramonet

Marzo  2.012
Unión Europea .- El 21 de febrero será recordado en Grecia como la jornada de la Gran Capitulación. Ese día, a cambio de la promesa de un segundo plan de rescate financiero,  el gobierno heleno aceptó las humillantes condiciones exigidas por el “clan europeo de la triple A” liderado por Alemania: draconianos recortes del gasto público, rebaja del salario mínimo, reducción de las pensiones, despido de 150.000 funcionarios, subida de impuestos y privatizaciones masivas.

De nada ha servido que los griegos lleven ya cuatro años de terapia de choque y de sacrificios sociales muy duros, ni que hayan tenido que someterse, el pasado 10 de noviembre, a un “golpe de Estado financiero” mediante el cual Berlín impuso, sin ninguna consulta democrática, al banquero Lukas Papademos (exvicepresidente del Banco Central Europeo) como Primer ministro de un gobierno tripartito compuesto de social demócratas, conservadores y extrema derecha.

Esta vez la afrenta ha sido mayor. Lo que se le ha exigido a Atenas es claramente una enorme cesión de soberanía, “probablemente la mayor realizada por un país en tiempos de paz” (1). De hecho, Grecia ha sido colocada bajo tutela europea, y dispone ahora, para todo lo que concierne a su presupuesto y a su economía, de un estatuto de soberanía limitada.

Semejante agresión se veía venir. Como una advertencia además a los otros países en dificultad de la zona euro, entre ellos España. En julio de 2011, ya Jean-Claude Juncker, primer ministro de Luxemburgo y presidente del Eurogrupo (2), había avisado: “La soberanía de Grecia será enormemente restringida” (3). Y el 27 de enero pasado, el diario británico Financial Times reveló un documento alemán que exigía el envío a Atenas de un Comisario con derecho de veto para dirigir el presupuesto público de esa nación y bloquear cualquier gasto no autorizado por sus acreedores. La víspera, en una entrevista al semanario Der Spiegel, el jefe del grupo parlamentario de la Unión Cristiano-Demócrata (CDU), Volker Kauder, fue aún más lejos: reclamó el envío a Grecia de “funcionarios alemanes que ayuden a construir una administración financiera eficiente”. Cosa que también pidió el propio ministro alemán de Economía, el muy liberal Philipp Rösler.

A tanto no se ha llegado, pero el acuerdo del 21 de febrero prevé “una presencia permanente en Grecia de una misión de la Comisión Europea” para controlar y vigilar sus cuentas, así como “una presencia reforzada de la troika [Comisión Europea, Banco Central Europeo, Fondo Monetario Internacional] para supervisar permanentemente el pago de la deuda”. Los fondos transferidos en el marco del Plan de ajuste serán ingresados en una cuenta bloqueada que sólo la troika gestionará, no el gobierno griego. Y que únicamente servirá para reembolsar la deuda soberana, no para pagar los salarios de los funcionarios, por ejemplo, o las pensiones de los jubilados. Los nuevos bonos del Estado heleno no serán de derecho griego sino de derecho británico… En caso de conflicto entre Atenas y los acreedores privados, el litigio será juzgado en Luxemburgo, no en Grecia… Aunque no es oficial, la República Helénica ha dejado de ser un Estado soberano.

De modo encubierto, la Unión Europea (UE) ha entrado en una nueva etapa en la que los Estados fuertes (“el clan de la triple A” más Francia) exigen de los demás, y en particular de los Estados de la periferia, un cambio de régimen. No se trata directamente de un estatuto colonial. Pero se asemeja bastante a un tipo de administración que las grandes potencias establecieron durante la era colonial: el de protectorado.
Para los colonizadores, el protectorado era una manera de extender su influencia política y económica, y de colocar bajo tutela territorios extranjeros a los que se deseaba extraer las riquezas, sin asumir los inconvenientes y los gastos que acarrea habitualmente una anexión pura y simple. La diferencia con la colonia, es que el “Estado protegido” conserva formalmente sus instituciones, pero cede a la “potencia protectora” su política exterior y, sobre todo, su economía y su comercio exterior.

No puede sorprendernos pues que, desde el comienzo en 2008 de la crisis financiera, hayamos asistido, en el seno de la UE, y más particularmente en la Eurozona, a una pérdida manifiesta de soberanía de los Estados más deprimidos (Irlanda, Grecia, Portugal, Italia, España).

Como fase preliminar del nuevo estatuto de “protectorado europeo”, al que acaba tristemente de acceder Grecia.

Angela Merkel acuñó en septiembre pasado el concepto de “marktkonforme demokratie” (democracia en conformidad con el mercado). Lo definió de la manera siguiente: “La elaboración del presupuesto del Estado es una prerrogativa fundamental del Parlamento, pero hay que hallar vías para que ese requisito democrático esté en conformidad con el mercado” (4). El mercado es ahora la pauta. Lo cual significa que ya no son los electores los que determinan las decisiones legislativas sino las Bolsas, los especuladores y los bancos (5).
Esta nueva filosofía antidemocrática triunfa hoy en Europa. Se está traduciendo ya en normas, leyes y tratados que limitan los márgenes de maniobra de los gobiernos y funcionan como un “piloto automático” para domesticar a las sociedades. A ese respecto, Grecia funciona como un modelo de lo que amenaza a los demás países de la periferia. Y que el Mecanismo Europeo de Estabilidad (MEDE) va a establecer, a partir del proximo mes de julio, como norma legal en la Unión Europea.

Concebido por Angela Merkel y aprobado ya, en su principio, por el Presidente del Gobierno español Mariano Rajoy, el MEDE es un nuevo organismo intergubernamental, una suerte de FMI europeo. Está siendo ratificado por los Parlamentos de los países  europeos sin ningún debate público, a pesar de que sus características podrían tener consecuencias nefastas para los ciudadanos. En efecto, el MEDE prevé la concesión de ayudas financieras a países en dificultad, a condición de que cedan soberanía, acepten colocarse bajo la tutela de una troika europea y apliquen despiadados planes de ajuste.

El MEDE está articulado con el “Pacto fiscal” adoptado el pasado 30 de enero por 25 de los 27 jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de la UE. Este temible Pacto (cuyo nombre verdadero es “Tratado sobre Estabilidad, Coordinación y Gobernanza de la Unión Económica y Monetaria”) es también una exigencia de Alemania, y obligará a los Estados firmantes a incluir en sus Constituciones la llamada “regla de oro”, que impone mantener el déficit estructural anual por debajo del 0,5 % del PIB. Los países que no incluyan en sus Constituciones ese techo de gasto podrán ser denunciados ante el Tribunal de Justicia de la UE por cualquier otro de los Estados miembros.
Carlos Marx decía que los gobiernos, en la era industrial, no eran más que los consejos de administración de la burguesía. Hoy podríamos decir que, en la Europa “austeritaria” de Angela Merkel, los Gobiernos se están convirtiendo en los consejos de administración de los mercados. ¿Hasta cuándo?

(1) El País, Madrid, 21 de febrero de 2012.#
(2) El Eurogrupo coordina y supervisa las políticas y estrategias económicas comunes de los Estados de la zona euro (eurozona). Una vez al mes congrega a los ministros de Economía y Finanzas de esos Estados.
(3) Entrevista al semanario alemán Focus, 4 de julio de 2011.
(4) Declaración a la radio pública alemana Deutschlandfunk, 1 de septiembre de 2011.
(5) Léase Rafael Poch, “Un documento alemán pide un comisario para Grecia”, La Vanguardia, Barcelona, 28 de enero de 2012.

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