México se convirtió en el segundo productor de opio del mundo

Por Nicolás Ayala

En tiempos en que los opioides están provocando más muertes en el mundo que jamás en la historia, México se posiciona como el segundo productor de opio del mundo, solo por detrás de Afganistán. Te contamos los orígenes y la actualidad de este fenómeno.

 

La epidemia de muertes provocada por consumo de opioides ya no solo es un tema que afecta a EEUU, Europa y África también comenzaron a sentir los estragos, alertó el Informe Mundial sobre las Drogas 2019 de Naciones Unidas.

Así es el debate sobre regulación de la marihuana en México, el país de la ‘Guerra contra las Drogas’

Y, aunque el documento indica que la producción global de opio en 2018 bajó respecto al máximo histórico alcanzado el año anterior, la cifra alcanzada es la segunda más alta de la última década, con 7.790 toneladas.

Este oligopolio lo dominan tres países, Afganistán, México y Birmania. En el país latinoamericano los cultivos de adormidera registran un aumento anual escalonado, pasó de 6.900 hectáreas en 2007 a la 30.600 en 2017, según el Monitoreo de Cultivos de Amapola 2015-2016 y 2016-2017 publicado en 2018 por Oficina de las Naciones Unidas contra la Droga y el Delito (Undoc, por sus siglas en inglés).

Una parte de este fenómeno tiene que ver con su vecino del norte. “EEUU es el mayor consumidor de opioides del mundo. Las organizaciones del crimen organizado mexicano se posicionan como proveedores”, dijo a Sputnik Inés Giménez, investigadora de estudios latinoamericanos de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).

Pero hay otros elementos en juego a la hora de analizar el aumento de la producción de amapola en territorio mexicano. La firma del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN) en 1994, provocó que la industria agrícola de México se resintiera. Se cancelaron subsidios y la desaparición de tarifas afectaron las ventas de los productos locales. Muchos de los campesinos comenzaron a optar por sustituir sus sembrados alimenticios por otros, como los de amapola.

Luego, hacia los 2000 se endureció la legislación estadounidense para obtener prescripciones de opioides de grados farmacéutico, algo que durante la década anterior había sido mucho más accesible. “Tras esa normativa muchos de los consumidores comenzaron a sustituir los comprimidos médicos por heroína”, explicó Giménez.

Esto provocó un efecto de auge del mercado de la heroína en el vecino del sur. Los cultivos de marihuana comenzaron a ser sustituidos por los de amapola, mucho más rentables.

“Otro motivo por los cuales la amapola ganó terreno en México fue la regulación de los mercados de cannabis en EEUU, que al no necesitar abastecerse de manera ilegal, abandonó la oferta mexicana”, sostuvo la investigadora.

El monitoreo de cultivos ilegales de la Undoc indica que en la actualidad los estados de Sinaloa, Chihuahua, Durango, Nayarit, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero y Oaxaca son los mayores productores del país.

“La amapola es un cultivo que permite la subsistencia de muchos campesinos. Pero se trata de trabajos precarios ya que se lleva a cabo desde la clandestinidad. Se trata de un cultivo penado con tiempo de cárcel. A su vez, la ilegalidad causó el aumento de la violencia por las disputas de rutas de tránsito”, señaló Giménez.

En agosto 2018 el Congreso del estado de Guerrero, la entidad federal con mayor producción de opio en México, aprobó un proyecto de regulación del cultivo de amapola. Para ser efectiva, debe atravesar un proceso de revisión, modificación y aprobación en el cuerpo legislativo federal.

“La discusión está planteada, todo esto se da en un contexto en que la Corte Suprema emitió una resolución a favor del cultivo y consumo para fines recreativos de marihuana”, indicó la investigadora.

Pero los obstáculos parlamentarios no son los únicos. La clandestinidad del cultivo favorece a los intereses de los cárteles.

“La ilegalidad hace que las ganancias sean mayores. Es un poco ingenuo pensar que con la mera regulación se vaya a disminuir la violencia. Lo que sí puede hacer es que campesinos que en el actual marco normativo trabajan en la clandestinidad, se formalicen y puedan ser integrados al mercado”, concluyó.

 

(FOTO LEYENDA)

Cómo México se convirtió en el segundo productor de opio del mundo © REUTERS / Parwiz Parwiz

 

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