Una Tía sin licencia social

Para hacer frente a las protestas contra el proyecto Tía María de la empresa Southern Perú Copper Corporation en el Valle del Tambo en Arequipa, el gobierno invoca al diálogo a los pobladores, y a la vez envía un contingente de 2.000 policías. El razonamiento parece simple: si los manifestantes entran al diálogo y aceptan en buena hora, pero sino no aceptan o “no quieren entender”, ahí está la fuerza policial para evitar los bloqueos de carreteras.

 

Por lo pronto ya van doce heridos.

 

El gobierno y la minera quieren llevar adelante este proyecto a como dé lugar. Craso error. El mismo que ha llevado a que la población se manifieste en contra del proyecto que tiene un Estudio de Impacto Ambiental (EIA) que fue aprobado sin la presencia masiva de los pobladores.

 

El conflicto se remonta a julio del 2009, cuando la empresa Southern anuncia una inversión de US$950 millones para el proyecto minero de Tía María, en Arequipa. La reacción de la población no se hizo esperar debido a que en su primer Estudio de Impacto Ambiental (EIA) la minera planteó utilizar el agua del subsuelo y los agricultores consideraron que eso afectaría irremediablemente las fuentes subterráneas que alimentan al río Tambo, que irriga más de doce mil hectáreas.

La comunidad entendió que ese proyecto, en esas condiciones, acabaría rápidamente con sus cultivos y se vio en la disyuntiva de tener que escoger entre la agricultura o la minería. El 2011 se agudizaron las protestas contra el proyecto y la refriega dejó un saldo de tres manifestantes muertos. El gobierno decidió suspender el proyecto y la empresa minera recién entendió que debía hacer cambios para lograr el consentimiento de la población, o lo que se denomina la Licencia Social.

Southern replanteó su EIA, con la novedad que no usará agua subterránea sino se desalinizará el mar con una planta de 70 millones de dólares. Además, instalar equipos de monitoreo para advertir una posible contaminación por polvo y las lluvias de ácido sulfúrico ante la ebullición a temperaturas extremas, y otro equipo de sensores que alertaría ante un derrame.

 

El peligro

Sin embargo, los pobladores del Valle del Tambo tienen serias razones para desconfiar. El proyecto está generando riesgos para ellos y para el río Tambo, que es su medio de vida. En el Valle se va instalar el tajo de Tía María y el tajo de la Tapada, que son una especie de miradores desde lo alto. De esos tajos van a sacar el mineral que va ser chancado y metido en unas pilas de lixiviación (que es un proceso que permite obtener el cobre de los minerales oxidados, aplicando una disolución de ácido sulfúrico y agua).

Estas pilas son una especie de piscina de unos dos kilómetros de largo y medio kilómetro de ancho, que van a recibir el mineral chancado para ser sometido a un baño de agua y ácido sulfúrico que genera una reacción con la presencia del cobre y va permitir que ese mineral pueda ser retirado con facilidad.

Son algunos millones de metros cúbicos de ácido sulfúrico que estará en la parte alta del Valle y ese ácido tiene que ser llevado a diario por decenas de camiones tanques que van a subir todos los días por las laderas del río Tambo. Los pobladores tienen temor a que en cualquier momento un camión cargado con ácido se precipite sobre el río y derrame su contenido. Es decir, se está sometiendo al Valle del Tambo a un riesgo que hoy en día no tiene.

 

El rechazo

Esta preocupación no ha sido tomada en cuenta por el gobierno ni la minera debido a que las audiencias en que se dio visto bueno al EIA fueron hechas en diciembre del 2013, a poco de las fiestas navideñas, sin la participación de pobladores representativos de la zona, con bastante gente foránea que ingresó a la reunión con DNI nuevo (pero con dirección de viviendas de la localidad) y con el resguardo de un gran contingente policial.

Tanto para Ricardo Giesecke como para José de Echave, estas audiencias no fueron representativas y por eso ahora se ve el rechazo de la población, lo que incluso fue refrendado en los últimos comicios en que fueron electos los alcaldes y autoridades que se manifestaron abiertamente en contra del proyecto Tía María.

Si en esa audiencia hubiera estado representada la mayoría de la población, lógicamente no habría oposición. Sin embargo hubo apresuramiento para aprobar el EIA, dar una imagen que la población ya aceptaba el proyecto.

“La licencia social con presencia de la policía es inviable, no van juntos. Ese EIA no lo conoce nadie del pueblo, ellos han querido que a la audiencia apenas entren 100 ó 200. Algo no nos están contando bien. Ellos han sacado una resolución diciendo que ya se aprobó y punto, cuando no es así. Quien tiene que dar su aprobación es la población. Una licencia social no se aprueba con una resolución”, sostuvo Giesecke.

Mientras los pobladores se alistan para defender su medio ambiente y su modo de vida, el gobierno alista una nueva mesa de diálogo, pero será más de lo mismo si es que los funcionarios no entienden que quienes tienen que estar convencidos que el proyecto no los afectará son los pobladores. Ellos son los que otorgan la licencia social y por ahora esa licencia se le ha negado a Tía María.

 

Fuente: Otra Mirada: http://otramirada.pe/una-t%

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