El despertar de un gigante

China en el siglo XXI

INTRODUCCION.– El libro “China en el siglo XXI. El despertar de un gigante” del investigador Sergio Rodriguez Gelfenstein fue presentado en dos escenarios en América. Primero en Caracas y después en Buenos Aires. El libro es el producto final de la tesis para aspirar al título de Doctor en Estudios Políticos por la Universidad de los Andes, Venezuela, en una investigación que fue tutorada por el Dr. Vladimir Aguilar Castro, recogiendo los resultados de tres años y medio de trabajo que incluyen 7 viajes a China con visitas de estudio a 32 grandes, medianas y pequeñas ciudades de 9 provincias, 2 regiones autónomas y 3 municipios directamente subordinados al poder central, es decir 14 entidades administrativas de las 34 que conforman el país.

Por Sergio Rodríguez Gelfenstein*

(foto carnet)

El estudio permitió darme cuenta que desde Occidente se comete el error de intentar conocer y juzgar a China desde una perspectiva endógena, que siendo ajena a ellos, nos lleva a cometer funestas equivocaciones en el análisis, conllevando a conclusiones falsas y puntos de vista desacertados al usar categorías, valores y principios extraños para la cultura, la tradición y la historia de China.

Los colegas chinos me señalaron que nuestra filosofía y nuestra ciencia política tuvieron su origen en los siglos IV y III a.c. y que a partir de ello se erigió todo el entramado de las sociedades de Occidente, pero me hicieron ver que un poco antes en los siglos VI y V a.c. ellos vieron surgir su propia filosofía política a partir de Confucio, Lao Tse, Mozi, Mencio y otros que configuraron la armazón del Estado y la sociedad modernas de China. No aprenden porque Occidente se esfuerza en juzgarlos a partir de un pensamiento foráneo que resulta improcedente para ellos.

Esto me condujo a entender que no se está hablando tan sólo de un país distinto, el análisis debe comprender que estamos ante una civilización diferente, mucho más antigua que la nuestra con toda la carga política, cultural y social que tal aseveración conlleva. A través de cinco milenios ha construido una ininterrumpida obra que se manifiesta en todos los terrenos de la vida, configurando una forma de ser, una forma de pensar y una forma de actuar distinta de la nuestra.

El problema del tiempo

El problema del tiempo entendido en términos filosóficos. Desde mi punto de vista, en él radican las profundas diferencias que tenemos con China. En Occidente, el tiempo es finito, finaliza con la vida. Las obras que emprendemos les concedemos validez si las vemos terminadas. En China el tiempo es infinito porque continúa con los descendientes, eso les permite ver todo desde una dimensión temporal distinta y les da la posibilidad de diseñar los planes y proyectos (el cambio de sociedad entre ellos) a muy largo plazo.

Así, encaré la tarea de aherrojar 5000 años de historia en una pequeña cantidad de páginas, sabiendo que no estaba escribiendo un libro de historia de China, sino solo extrayendo hechos ocurridos hasta 1978 que tuvieran influencia y presencia en la China de hoy. Lo mismo ocurrió con el segundo capítulo dedicado a reunir la mayor cantidad posible de elementos filosóficos que a través del tiempo configuraron la síntesis de su pensamiento y que confluyen en la actualidad en la construcción de lo que se podría llamar la doctrina china del siglo XXI.

Solo entonces fue posible hacer frente a la política china, primero a partir de 1978 cuando se inició la reforma y apertura liderizada por Deng Xiaoping y después, desde 2012 cuando Xi Jinping fue elegido secretario general del Partido Comunista de China en el XVIII Congreso de esa organización, lo que marcó un punto de inflexión que permite proyectar el trazado que se ha hecho para que el país cumpla el “sueño chino” que es su propuesta de desarrollo para el siglo XXI.

Finalmente se asumió el estudio de la política exterior de China en tres etapas: desde la creación de la Nueva China en 1949 hasta 1978, desde este año hasta 2012 y a partir de ese momento hasta ahora y su proyección en el siglo XXI.

“Se podrá estar de acuerdo o no con los principios políticos e ideológicos de China, o con su modelo de sociedad y de economía, pero nadie puede poner en duda que está estableciendo un nuevo patrón de conducta para una potencia en el escenario internacional. ..  Los pueblos del planeta deben estudiar y conocer este experimento grandioso realizado en el país más poblado y uno de los más extensos del mundo, para implementar políticas propias para su relacionamiento con China, sobre todo, cuando estamos ante el país que sin ninguna duda, será la próxima mayor potencia mundial”.

*sergioro07@hotmail.com

Fuente: Barómetro Latinoamericano     

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